This rich and comforting Greek Moussaka casserole is made with layers of ground lamb or beef and eggplant, all topped off with a luscious béchamel sauce.
My husband and I first had moussaka during the year we lived outside of London after college. We lived in a tiny flat with an even tinier kitchen, and so most of our wonderful food memories came through ready-made foods: Indian take-out, fish ‘n chips, and pub food. We discovered moussaka in the little market near our flat where they sold homemade dinners packaged in ‘to go’ containers. Moussaka is a Greek casserole of eggplant layered with spiced ground lamb or beef, and topped in a creamy white bechamel or custard sauce. It’s comfort food of the highest order.
It wasn’t until we came home from our year abroad that I attempted to make this gorgeous eggplant dish from scratch. It’s not difficult, but there are a few steps to it. First you’re going to want some large deep purple eggplant for this recipe, not the cute little lavender ones, above, but aren’t they pretty?
There are so many variations of this beloved Mediterranean classic, and this recipe is true to the one we had in England. One note, you can use ground lamb or beef, but if you opt for lamb, be sure to ask for it lean…ground lamb can be very fatty. Lamb has a little more flavor, but beef is fine, and it’s what I used here.
Moussaka takes a little bit of prep, but the unusual flavors and textures are so worth it. The work load is comparable to a homemade lasagna, so plan ahead, or do it in stages. You can totally layer up the meat sauce and eggplant the day before, and whip up the béchamel sauce right before baking.
prepping the eggplant
I slice the eggplants into 1/2 inch slices, brush with olive oil and roast them until they’re browned and softened. Note: many recipes have you salt and ‘sweat’ the eggplant, but I don’t find this extra step is necessary, the roasting cooks them down just fine.
simmering the meat sauce
The rich meat sauce can get started while the eggplant roasts. It takes about 30 minutes for the flavors to meld and the sauce to thicken a bit. I love the mix of warm spices in this sauce. Any number of different spices can be used in Moussaka, depending on your variation. I kept it simple with a raz el hanout spice mix, plus my favorite zesty smoked paprika.
Raz el hanout is a Moroccan blend
You can sometimes find it at well stocked grocery stores, and you can always find it online, here.. You can also make the spice blend yourself ~ here’s a simple sample recipe that approximates the one I used:
- 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
- 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger.
- 1/2 teaspoon ground allspice
- 1/2 teaspoon ground white pepper
- 1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg
- 1/4 teaspoon ground cayenne
moussaka is a layered casserole
The whole thing gets layered up just like a lasagna, with layers of eggplant followed by layers of meat sauce.
the béchamel topping
The topping is the most magnificent creamy custard sauce and the most distinctive element in a moussaka. It’s cooked up in a saucepan and seasoned with lots of freshly grated nutmeg ~ this is essential! Pour it over the casserole and you’re ready to bake.
why we love it
By the time your moussaka is done you’ll be stark raving mad with desire….the aroma is incredible. This meal does take a bit of prep, I’m not going to mislead you, but the results are truly spectacular. The flavors and textures are unlike any casserole you’re used to, and it’s a really memorable meal.
more Greek inspired recipes to try
- Greek Tomato Salad with Salmon
- Greek Meatballs in Lemon Sauce
- Avgolemono Soup
- Grilled Chicken Greek Salad
- Greek Meatballs in Lemon Sauce
- Greek Style Stuffed Artichokes
kitchen tool spotlight: enameled cast iron braiser
A sturdy 4 qt enameled cast iron braising pan is one of my favorites for homey casseroles like mac and cheese, baked pastas, stews, and today’s moussaka. It bakes evenly and never sticks. Wide and shallow, with sloping sides, this pan makes a beautiful presentation for serving, too.
- 3-4 medium eggplants
- olive oil
- 3 cloves garlic, minced
- 1 1/2 lb ground beef or lamb, make sure you ask your grocer for ‘lean’ ground lamb
- 1 onion, finely diced
- 2 garlic cloves, finely chopped
- 1/2 cup red wine
- 1/2 cup tomato puree
- 1/2 cup water, if the sauce is very thick
- 2 tsp raz el hanout spice mix
- 1 tsp smoked paprika
- salt and fresh cracked black pepper
- Bechamel sauce:
- 3 tbsp butter
- 3 tbsp flour
- 2 cups warm milk
- 2 egg yolks, whisked
- pinch of nutmeg
- 1 cup grated cheese, I used Parmesan
- 1/2 cup ricotta cheese, optional
- Preheat oven to 400F
- Slice the eggplants into 1/2 inch slices. Mix the garlic with about 1/2 cup of olive oil and brush it on both sides of the eggplant slices. Arrange them in a single layer on baking sheets. Roast the eggplant for about 25 minutes, until browned and softened. After the eggplant has roasted, turn the oven down to 350F.
- Put a bit of olive oil in a pan and brown the ground meat. Drain off the excess fat, reserving about 2 tablespoons in the pan, and set the meat aside. In the same pot, saute the onions for a few minutes until they’ve softened, then add the garlic and sauté a couple of minutes more, stirring often.
- Add the raz el hanout and paprika to the pan and sauté, stirring constantly, until fragrant. Add the wine and let it bubble for a minute or so, while you scrape up anything stuck to the bottom of the pan.
- Add the meat back in, with the tomato sauce. Add the water if your sauce is very thick at this point. Cook at a low simmer for about 20-30 minutes, stirring occasionally. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
- To make the custard sauce, melt the butter in a small pot, and whisk in the flour. Cook for a minute, without browning. Whisk in the warm milk and heat, whisking or stirring constantly, until it just comes to a boil and thickens slightly. Take off the heat and whisk in the cheese, nutmeg and salt. When the cheese has melted and the sauce is smooth, briskly whisk in the egg yolks.
- Next, brush the bottom of a large casserole or braising pan with olive oil, and arrange a layer of eggplant slices on the bottom. Try to cover the bottom of the casserole as completely as possible.
- Cover the eggplant with 1/3 meat mixture. Add another layer of eggplant, and another 1/3 of the meat. Finish with a final layer of eggplant and the rest of the meat sauce. Note: if two layers work better for your pan, that’s fine.
- Pour the custard over the top and spread out gently.
- Bake (at 350F) for about 40 minutes or until everything is bubbling and the topping is golden. I ran it under the broiler at the end to brown the top.
Questions and Reviews
What is razors el hanout? I am not familiar with this spice
It’t a Middle Eastern spice blend which can contain any combination of: cardamom, cumin, clove, cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, allspice, dry ginger, chili peppers, coriander seed, peppercorn, sweet and hot paprika, fenugreek, and dry turmeric. Sometimes even rose petals! Because it’s so complex it’s usually easier to find a ready made spice blend. You can find this in larger supermarkets, or online. I explain more about it in the post, above the recipe.
This moussaka recipe tastes wonderful! The steps are easy to follow, and the eggplants really do not need salting. I increased the spice amounts because I love middle-eastern flavors, otherwise the recipe is perfect as is. The béchamel sauce is so creamy and delicious that I wish there were more. Thank you!!
So delicious! Will definitely make this again.
I added a layer of sliced roasted potatoes.
Didn’t know what to do without the ricotta so I left it out, please explain, does it get layered or put on the sauce.
Hey Denise, the ricotta can be folded in with the Parmesan, or left out, your choice.
Do you bake the casserole at 400° did not see the temperature change after the eggplant slices were roasted
Yes, you’ll roast the eggplant, then turn the oven down to 350F for the casserole bake, I clarified that just now.
This is an updated and upgraded recipe – love it, Sue congratulations! When a student at the university in CA, my vacation was paid by cooking and selling my moussaka at the local diner -Wednesday special- ; easy to make, a bit of extra legwork but as Sue describes – is comfort food at its best! Plus, it freezes very well! Very well done, Sue!
Oh wow, well, if you have any moussaka secrets, spill them here Alexandra!
I love the spices you use, they are “progressive”, the smells must be indulgent! I also bake the eggplants, its lighter, although nothing beats the fried ones! There are really no secrets, just variations. One is on the bechamel which can be replaced either with a yogurt or buttermilk sauce; I do the latter. I also substitute a layer of eggplants with grilled peppers. I add a lot of parsley and also use a lot of tomatoes with the tomato paste (as you also do) in the minced meat simmering for an hour. On top of the eggplants I add shredded mature piquant cheese. Finally, I spread small -really small- like peas, pieces of fresh butter on top of the sauce. Calories? I do not want to guess. Simply serve a small portion and have friends to share. I love this dish. Its a plethora of produce, an abundance of goodness. I am happy you like it, too.
Ok! Lots of good tips here, thanks. I especially love the idea of layering in peppers, I adore them 🙂
Thanks for including your spice-blend for the raz el hanout, Sue. Nice to have handy when it’s out of stock in the local shop. Your moussaka recipe is much like mine (from a London restaurant) except theirs included chunky potato pieces in the bottom layer. And it certainly it a comfort food. Cheers!
Oh my goodness, I can basically smell this recipe all the way from Los Angeles! Seriously <3 I need to make this ASAP – Beef & Eggplant = that combo is absolutely scrumptious!!!!!